Toward a Truly Multiracial Democracy


Note: This is another in my continuing series on Possible Racial Futures for the US. This one is based on the last chapter of “The White Racial Frame” (2010) by Joe R. Feagin, a White American sociologist.

The US is capable of becoming less racist and more democratic
, as shown by Reconstruction in the 1800s, which freed slaves and made them citizens, and Civil Rights reforms in the 1900s, which overthrew Jim Crow.

 both Reconstruction and Civil Rights were later seriously weakened because they left two things in place:

  1. Ideological: The white racial frame (white racism).
  2. Economic: Huge racial inequalities in wealth, income and education.

Therefore you need:

  1. Ideological: The liberty-and-justice frame of the Founding Fathers along with an understanding of stereotyping and institutional racism.
  2. Economic: Reparations, especially for Black and Native Americans.


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